The quality of life of people in North Korea was compared with that in South Korea. The quality of life in North Korea was assessed by 53 North Korea defectors, who are receiving governmental education program and not yet living in South Korean society. While the quality of life in South Korea was assessed by 363 South Koreans. These two groups were not statistically different in distribution in age, sex and education level. Instrument was Korean version of WHO Quality of Life (WHOQOL). The results showed that the total score in WHOQOL in North Korea (73.80±13.11) was significantly lower than that in South Korea (81.85±11.12)(P=0.000). The scores of the level of independence domain, social domain, environment domain and religious-spiritual-personal belief domain were higher in South Korea. However, the score in the facet of bodily image-appearence in North Korea was significantly higher than that in South Korea. Also the scores of the facets of thinking-learning-memory-concetration, pain and discomfort and energy-fatigue in North Korea were a little higher than those in South Korea, though it was not statistically significant. The Scores of the factets of self-esteem, mobility, work capacity, personal relationship, sexual activity and physical environment were almost same between North and South Koreas. The facets of which scores were significantly lower in North Korea than South Korea were sleep and rest, positive feelings, negative feelings, activities of daily living, dependencey on medication or treatment, practical social support, physical safety and security, home environment, financial resources, health and social care, opportunity for acquiring new information and skills, participation and opportunity for recreation/leisure, transport and religion-spirituality personal beliefs. There was no difference between genders in both South and North Koreas. There were some differences among age groups, education levels, and marital status in both groups. Also the score was lower in ill-group both in two Koreas. The data suggest what kinds of area should be supported to promote the quality of life of North Koreans in the future.