4권 1호_윤덕룡_탈북자 적응의 사회경제적 문제: 보호경찰관에 대한 설문결과를 중심으로


Abstract


The analyses about the North Korean defectors living in South Korea have transmitted many informations about their adjusting problem in the new society. However, the researches are based on the defectors` opinion because they are carried out mainly by the survey to the defectors themselves. Even though the results are really informative, they would not reflect the problems fully, because the defectors can manipulate the results for their own interest and they do not understand the society well. This means that the results should be corrected by the survey to the South Koreans. On this reason the survey is conducted to the South Korean policemen, who have cared for the North Korean defectors, because they know the defectors best. The objects of this survey was to find out the adjusting problems of North Korean defectors and the way to overcome them with the view of South Koreans. The 258 answers are gathered and analyzed. Most important findings are like following: First, the policemen regard the socialistic lifestyle and the way of thinking depending on state as problems for adjusting, even though the defectors do not consider it as problems. Second, 85% of the answered pointed the individual problem like lack of job capability as most important problem rather than the social problem like prejudice. The most often pointed problem was the lack of job capability. However, 20% of the answered said the defectors did not want to be employed. This needs a deeper investigation. Third, just 27.9% of the answered would employ the defectors as a worker if they were employer, while 59.7% would not. This implies the long term rate of unemployment will increase and the potential unemployment after the unification will approach at least 59.7% on the proposition that the policemen represented the whole South Koreans. Fourth, the policemen recommended following policy measures in the given order: vocational training and social education-help to find job-increasing the support for settlement-providing house. Especially over the half of the answered raised the necessity of vocational training. The survey showed that there are common sense about the problems and the improving measures, even though there are some gaps acknowledging the real world. The common findings is that the North Korean defectors could not survive independently if they don`t have any vocational training to improve the job capability or the financial support. Even after the vocational training they need help for finding a job. This means an incentive system should be developed for firms giving a chance to the defectors like wage subsidy. It is needed not only for the social justice but also for the proper use of human resources. The principle of ``guarantee of basic standard of living`` and ``encouraging the self-reliance`` should be kept in supporting the settlement as well as income subsidy. Government should develop a institutional frame for cooperation with religious and social groups, so that the supporting system reaches the intended goals.



4권 1호_윤덕룡_탈북자 적응의 사회경제적 문제 보호경찰관에 대한 설문결
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